MIT Sloan Management Review
Vol. 62, No. 2 (Hiver 2021), pp. 47-53
Gregory Vial, Jinglu Jiang, Tanya Giannelia, Ann-Frances Cameron

AI efforts can fail to move out of the lab if organizations don’t carefully manage access to data throughout the development and production life cycle. We recently studied how organizations move their AI initiatives from R&D, lablike settings into production and the problems they encounter in doing so. The research is based on interviews with key AI leaders and informants in six North American companies of different sizes and operating in different industries. A key finding is that, although many people focus on the accuracy and completeness of data to determine its quality, the degree to which it is accessible by machines — one of the dimensions of data quality — appears to be a bigger challenge in taking AI out of the lab and into the business. More important, we found that data accessibility is too often treated exclusively as an IT problem. In reality, our analysis reveals that it is a management problem aggravated by misconceptions about the nature and the role of data accessibility in AI.

Information and Organisation
Disponible en ligne (Déc. 2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infoandorg.2020.100322
Saggi Nevo, Dorit Nevo, Alain Pinsonneault

The front-end of innovation (FEI) is critical for successful innovation in contemporary organizations. Employee creativity, or creative behavior, is at the heart of the FEI and it encompasses three activities: idea generation, idea elaboration, and idea championing. Information technology (IT) can play an important role in enabling these activities but extant research has focused primarily on IT-enabled idea generation. This paper complements the extant research by examining the entire set of activities that compose FEI. Specifically, we develop a model that examines IT-enabled idea generation, IT-enabled elaboration and IT-enabled championing, and that, grounded in the componential theory of creativity, analyzes their key drivers. An empirical study establishes the applicability of the model. The paper contributes to IS research and practice by shedding light on the tripartite role that organizational IT can play in employee creativity, and it serves as a springboard for future research.

Journal of the Association for Information Systems
Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 936-970 (Juillet 2020), DOI: 10.17705/1jais.00625
Yasser Rahrovani, Alain Pinsonneault

The paper distinguishes two different types of innovative behaviors with information technology (IT): innovative IS use (IU) and innovating with IT (IwIT). While the former focuses on changing the technology and the work process to better support one’s existing work goals, the latter focuses on using IT to develop new work-related goals and outcomes. Drawing on Parker’s theory of proactive behavior, the paper compares the motivational antecedents and consequences of these two innovative behaviors with IT. Our model hypothesizes that three generic types of motivation differentially affect IwIT vs. IU. The paper also explores the moderating role of slack resources on the effect of motivation on the two innovative behaviors with IT. Data from a survey of 427 IT users from North American companies show that social motivation affects IwIT (but not IU); intrinsic motivation is positively related to IU (but not IwIT), and internalized extrinsic motivation affects both IU and IwIT. Further, the results indicate that the moderating role of slack resources on different motivational paths is not a one-size-fits-all effect, that is, IS slack resources only moderates the relationship between intrinsic motivation and IwIT. We also differentiated the consequences of IwIT from IU. The post hoc analysis shows that IwIT is significantly related to individual mindfulness at work, but IU is not. The paper contributes to IS research by offering a rich conceptualization of IwIT and examining its motivational antecedents and consequences, compared to IU.

Journal of Management Information Systems
Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 377-395 (Juin 2020), DOI: 10.1080/07421222.2020.1759938
Nathan Twyman, Jeffrey Proudfoot, Ann-Frances Cameron, Eric Case, Judee K. Burgoon, Douglais P. Twitchell

Deception is an unfortunate staple in group work. Guarding against team members’ deceptive tactics and alternative agendas is difficult and may seem even more difficult in technology-driven business environments that have made multitasking during teamwork increasingly commonplace. This research develops a foundation for a nuanced theoretical understanding of deception detection under these conditions. The intersection of information technology multitasking and deception detection theories is shown to produce various and sometimes competing ideas about how this type of multitasking might affect truthfulness assessments in real-time teamwork. A laboratory study involving a collaborative game helped evaluate the different ideas using manipulated deception and multitasking behaviors in a real-time, virtual group environment. The results provide evidence that information multitasking can actually improve deception detection, likely because multitaskers engage less in the team conversation, making themselves less manipulable. As understanding of multitasking benefits increases, managers and designers can incorporate effective multitasking into collaborative processes.

Information Systems Research
Vol. 31, No.1, pp.258-285 (Mars 2020), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.2019.0884
Sunghun Chung, Animesh Animesh, Kunsoo Han et Alain Pinsonneault

The primary goal of this study is to investigate the financial returns to firms’ communication actions on a firm-initiated social media platform by focusing on Facebook Business pages. To this end, we conceptualize and quantify two types of firms’ communication actions on social media: posts and responses to customer messages. Further, we classify a firm’s responses to customer messages based on the valence of customer messages – positive vs. negative – and examine the effects of volume as well as timeliness of the two types of a firm’s responses to customer messages on firm performance. Using a sample of 63 South Korean firms across industries over a three-year period (5,566 firm-week observations), we find that the volume and timeliness of a firm’s responses to negative customer messages, which are associated with an increase in customer satisfaction, have a significant positive impact on the firm’s market performance, measured by abnormal returns and Tobin’s q. Interestingly, the results suggest that a firm’s posts and its responses to positive customer messages are not significantly associated with firm performance. Further, we find that a firm’s posts and its responses to negative customer messages exhibit complementarities in contributing to firm performance. Our results are robust to various alternative specifications, econometric concerns, and Facebook’s policy changes such as EdgeRank and Promoted Post. Our findings underscore the business value of firms’ actions on social media and provide unique and important implications for theory and practice regarding the appropriate ways to use social media for building and managing customer relationships.

MIS Quarterly
Vol. 44, No.1b, pp. 451-508 (Mars 2020), DOI: 10.25300/MISQ/2020/15108
Jinglu Jiang, Ann-Frances Cameron

Self-monitoring is a strategy that patients use to manage their chronic disease and chronic disease risk factors. Technological advances such as mobile apps, web-based tracking programs, sensing devices, wearable technologies, and insideable devices enable IT-based self-monitoring (ITSM) for chronic disease management. Since ITSM is multidisciplinary in nature and our understanding is fragmented, a systematic examination of the literature is performed to build a holistic understanding of the phenomenon. We review 159 studies published in 108 journals and conferences between 2006 and 2017. By adapting affordance actualization theory, we develop an overarching framework to organize the existing literature on ITSM for chronic disease management. Four themes emerge: key ITSM functionalities that enable affordances; effects on ITSM system use; effects on the achievement of chronic care goals; and the role of intermediary outcomes. For each theme, we identify what is known, what is unknown, and opportunities for future research. We also discuss cross-theme opportunities for future research where more diverse theoretical perspectives can contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon. This work provides research directions for IS researchers studying ITSM for chronic disease self-management.

The Journal of Strategic Information Systems
Vol. 29, No. 1, art. 101599 (Mars 2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsis.2020.101599
Forough Karimi-Alaghehband, Suzanne Rivard

This study proposes and tests a model of information technology outsourcing (ITO) capabilities as antecedents of ITO success. Building on the dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP), the model posits that ITO sensing, ITO seizing, and ITO orchestrating capabilities will influence ITO success by way of both successful reconfiguration of IT solutions and successful delivery of IT services. Building on extant ITO research, the model also hypothesizes that contract management capabilities and relationship management capabilities will influence ITO success via the successful delivery of IT services. Data from a cross-sectional survey of 152 large U.S.-based organizations in various industries were analyzed with PLS. The results support the hypothesis that successful reconfiguration mediates the effect of dynamic capabilities on ITO success. They partially support the hypothesis of successful delivery as mediator of the effect of dynamic capabilities on ITO success. The hypothesis of successful delivery as a mediator of the effect of relationship management capabilities and contract management capabilities on ITO success is supported only for relationship management capabilities. The study offers a theoretical anchoring for the conceptualization of ITO capabilities, which complements the rich and context-specific case-based literature of ITO capabilities and extends current research by adding to existing explanations of how ITO success is achieved.

MIS Quarterly
Vol. 44, No.1b, pp. 351-389 (Mars 2020), DOI: 10.25300/MISQ/2020/15103
Azadeh Savoli, Henri Barki, Guy Paré

While chronically ill patients can significantly benefit from self-management (SM) information systems, they are also unlikely to perceive, use, and benefit from them in the same way, and past research has observed that many patients tend to not use such systems effectively. A key premise of the present study is that attributing the cause of one’s success or failure in self-managing one’s chronic disease to SM information systems is likely to influence how patients react to such systems, which in turn is likely to influence their usage behaviors and SM performance. Building upon attribution theory and learned helplessness theory, this paper examines how patients’ causal attributions of their success or failure in selfmanaging their chronic illness tends to influence the way they cognitively perceive, emotionally react to, and use an ITbased SM system. It also examines what constituted effective use in the SM context that was studied and how patients’ effective use of an IT-based SM system tended to influence their SM performance. Based on data collected from patients who were using a web-based asthma SM portal, the paper identifies three SM attributional styles and three patient views of SM information systems that help explain how chronically ill patients tend to interact with such systems, as well as its consequences, and discusses the implications of its findings for research and practice.

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Journal of Strategic Information Systems
Vol. 29, No. 1, 101595 (Mars 2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsis.2020.101595
Stefan Tams, Manju Ahuja, Jason Thatcher, Varun Grover
Mobile technologies have dramatically increased the number of work-related interruptions, especially after regular work hours. At the same time, many employees have limited freedom to decide how and when they accomplish their work, a condition that renders the explosion of interruptions especially problematic. This study proposes that perceived interruption overload negatively impacts work-related technology-usage via workers’ experiences of work-life conflict, a key source of stress, and that this indirect effect is stronger for lower levels of worker control (moderated mediation). Data were collected from 601 knowledge workers and analyzed through Conditional process analysis, which integrates moderation and mediation analyses. The results supported our model. This study takes an important step toward elucidating the role of mobile technology in work-life conflict and technostress, and it illustrates the roles of perceived interruption overload as well as conflict and technostress in IT use.

MIS Quarterly
Vol. 44, No. 1b, pp. 421-450 (Mars 2020); DOI: 10.25300/MISQ/2020/15089
Kathryn Brohman, Shamel Addas, Jeff A. Dixon, Alain Pinsonneault

While telemonitoring technology is widely used in treatment of patients with chronic diseases, our understanding of how it influences patient-related outcomes is limited. Drawing upon feedback intervention theory, the paper develops a model that examines how a telemonitoring feedback ecosystem (patient, telemonitoring technology, care provider) is related to patient behavioral outcomes. More precisely, we study the cascading effects of two types of technology feedback (medical and compliance alerts) on the provision of three types of feedback (outcome, corrective, and personal) given by care providers, and how the feedback in turn is related to patient adaptation and ultimately to calls to 911. Using generalized linear mixed modeling, we tested our hypotheses with longitudinal data from 212 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or chronic heart failure (CHF) over 26 weeks. Our results show that medical alerts had a positive association with all three types of provider feedback. By contrast, compliance alerts had curvilinear relationships with corrective and personal feedback. Our results also show that outcome feedback and personal feedback were associated with increases in patient adaptations. Patient adaptation was negatively related to the odds of calling 911. Interestingly, we found a significant negative interaction between outcome and corrective feedback and patient adaptation. Finally, our results show that while the frequency of feedback decreased over the life of the program, the amount of adaptations increased over the same period, which suggests that patient self-management improved over time. By examining a telemonitoring-based ecosystem with two stages of feedback, our study contributes to the chronic disease management literature as well as to other contexts where monitoring technologies deliver feedback that is mediated by a third party. Theoretical and practical implications of our study are discussed.

Communications of the Association for Information Systems
Vol. 46, pp. 134-186 (Février 2020), DOI: 10.17705/1CAIS.04607
Guido Schryen, Gerit Wagner, Alexander Benlian, Guy Paré

Literature reviews (LRs) play an important role in the development of domain knowledge in all fields. Yet, we observe a lack of insights into the activities with which LRs actually develop knowledge. To address this important gap, we (1) derive knowledge building activities from the extant literature on LRs, (2) suggest a knowledge-based typology of LRs that complements existing typologies, and (3) apply the suggested typology in an empirical study that explores how LRs with different goals and methodologies have contributed to knowledge development. The analysis of 240 LRs published in 40 renowned IS journals between 2000 and 2014 allows us to draw a detailed picture of knowledge development achieved by one of the most important genres in the IS field. An overarching contribution of our work is to unify extant conceptualizations of LRs by clarifying and illustrating how LRs apply different methodologies in a range of knowledge building activities to achieve their goals with respect to theory.

Journal of the Association for Information Systems
Vol. 21, No.1, art. 3 (Janvier 2020), DOI: 10.17705/1jais.00491
Stefan Tams, Alina Dulipovici, Jason B. Thatcher, Kevin Craig, Mark Srite

A growing body of literature examines how to elicit knowledge contributions to electronic knowledge repositories (EKRs) with the goal of helping organizations increase implementation benefits. While this literature has explained in detail the initial EKR adoption by knowledge contributors, it has not yet examined the drivers of postadoptive EKR usage for contributing knowledge. Postadoptive EKR usage, such as innovative feature use, can potentially result in richer contributions to EKRs. To aid understanding of how to unlock the benefits of EKRs for organizations, this study examines the impact of basic human values on one type of postadoptive behavior that goes well beyond basic usage: trying to innovate with EKR features. We develop a research model that integrates human values and trying to innovate with EKRs, suggesting that human values indicate modes of independent thought and action and can lead to attempts to innovate in EKR use by increasing the frequency of EKR usage. Data collected from 233 knowledge workers support the model. Our findings shed light on how to encourage innovative EKR usage and underscore the importance of human values for the success of knowledge management initiatives.

Information Systems Research
Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 1073-1097 (Sept. 2019)
Sunghun Chung, Animesh Animesh, Kunsoo Han, Alain Pinsonneault

While software patents have been growing steadily since 1996 when the restrictions on the patentability of software were eliminated, their value and impacts on the firm’s profits remain unclear and ambiguous. Drawing on the real option theory and the literature on exploration and exploitation, we develop a novel theoretical framework to assess the value of software patent. Moreover, we examine the impact of contextual factors related to the nature of innovation underlying firms’ patent portfolios (exploitative vs. explorative) and the environmental uncertainty (competitiveness and dynamism) on the value of software patents. Specifically, we examine the interaction effect of a firm’s software patent stock and its innovation orientation on firm value in markets exhibiting different levels of environmental uncertainty. Based on a large panel dataset consisting of 602 US firms, our results indicate that a software patent portfolio having higher levels of explorative orientation is associated with a higher firm value (as measured by Tobin’s q) in environments exhibiting low dynamism and high competitiveness. In contrast, a software patent portfolio with higher levels of exploitative orientation is associated with the higher firm value in environments with high dynamism and low competitiveness. We discuss the implications for research and practice.

Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Vol. 12, No. 7, pp. 1-12, e005493 (Juillet 2019), https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.119.005493
Mathew J. Reeves, Michele C. Fritz, Amanda T. Woodward, Anne K. Hughes, Constantinos K. Coursaris,
Sarah J. Swierenga, Mojdeh Nasiri, Paul P. Freddolino

Background: To test whether access to home-based social worker–led case management (SWCM) program or SWCM program combined with a website providing stroke-related information improves patient-reported outcomes in patients with stroke, relative to usual care. Methods and Results: The MISTT (Michigan Stroke Transitions Trial), an open (unblinded) 3-group parallel-design clinical trial, randomized 265 acute patients with stroke to 3 treatment groups: Usual Care (group-1), SWCM (group-2), and SWCM+MISTT website (group-3). Patients were discharged directly home or returned home within 4 weeks of discharge to a rehabilitation facility. The SWCM program provided in-home and phone-based case management services. The website provided patient-orientated information covering stroke education, prevention, recovery, and community resources. Both interventions were provided for up to 90 days. Outcomes data were collected by telephone at 7 and 90 days. Primary patient-reported outcomes included Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Global-10 Quality-of-Life (Physical and Mental Health subscales) and the Patient Activation Measure. Treatment efficacy was determined by comparing the change in mean response (90 days minus 7 days) between the 3 treatment groups using a group-by-time interaction. Subjects were aged 66 years on average, 49% were female, 21% nonwhite, and 86% had ischemic stroke. There were statistically significant changes in Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Physical Health (P=0.003) and Patient Activation Measure (P=0.042), but not Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Mental Health (P=0.56). The mean change in Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Physical Health scores for group-3 (SWCM+MISTT Website) was significantly higher than both group-2 (SWCM; difference, +2.4; 95% CI, 0.46–4.34; P=0.02) and group-1 (usual care; difference, +3.4; 95% CI, 1.41–5.33; P<0.001). The mean change in Patient Activation Measure scores for group-3 was significantly higher than group-2 (+6.7; 95% CI, 1.26–12.08; P=0.02) and marginally higher than group-1 (+5.0; 95% CI, −0.47 to 10.52; P=0.07). Conclusions: An intervention that combined SWCM with access to online stroke-related information produced greater gains in patient-reported physical health and activation compared with usual care or case management alone. There was no intervention effect on mental health.

Accident, Analysis & Prevention
Vol. 127, pp. 1-8 (Juin 2019), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.022
François Courtemanche, Élise Labonté-LeMoyne, Pierre-Majorique Léger, Marc Fredette, Sylvain Sénécal, Ann-Frances Cameron, Jocelyn Faubert, François Bellavance

Texting while walking has been highlighted as a dangerous behavior that leads to impaired judgment and accidents. This impairment could be due to task switching which involves activation of the present task and the inhibition of the previous task. However, the relative contributions of these processes and their brain activity have not yet been studied. We addressed this gap by asking participants to discriminate the orientation of an oncoming human shape in a virtual environment while they were: i) walking on a treadmill, or ii) texting while walking on a treadmill. Participants’ performance (i.e., correctly identifying if a walker would pass them to their left or right) and electroencephalography (EEG) data was collected. Unsurprisingly, we found that participants performed better while they were only walking than when texting while walking. However, we also found that the diminished performance is differently related to task set inhibition and task set activation in the two conditions. The alpha oscillations, which can be used as an index of task inhibition, have a significantly different relation to performance in the two conditions, the relation being negative when subjects are texting. This may indicate that the more inhibition is needed, the more the performance is affected by texting. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the brain signature of task switching in texting while walking. This finding is the first step in identifying the source of impaired judgment in texting pedestrians and in finding viable solutions to reduce the risks.

MIS Quarterly
Vol. 43, No.2, pp. 395-423 (Juin 2019), DOI: 10.25300/MISQ/2019/13225
Kuang-Yuan Huang, InduShobha Chengalur-Smith, Alain Pinsonneault

Individuals increasingly rely on healthcare virtual support communities (HVSCs) for social support and companionship. While research provides interesting insights into the drivers of informational support in knowledge-sharing virtual communities, there is limited research on the antecedents of emotional support provision and companionship activities in HVSCs. The unique characteristics of HVSCs also justify the need to reexamine members’ voluntary provisions of help in such communities. This paper develops a model that examines the relationships between the structural, relational, and cognitive dimensions of social capital and the provision of informational and emotional support, and engagement in companionship activities in HVSCs. The model is tested based on data generated through an automated method that classifies and analyzes user-generated text in three healthcare virtual support communities (breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer). The results show that all three dimensions of social capital impact the provision of emotional support; both structural and relational capital facilitate engagement in companionship activities; and only cognitive capital enables the provision of informational support. Research and practical implications on the need to facilitate informational and emotional support provision and companionship activities in healthcare virtual support communities are discussed.

Journal of Information Technology
Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 129-159 (Juin 2019), https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0268396218816271
Forough Karimi-Alaghehband, Suzanne Rivard

Grounded in the dynamic capabilities perspective, our study addresses the question of how information technology outsourcing capabilities can interact with other IT strategic capabilities to enable organizational agility through the ongoing reconfiguration of IT solutions. To answer our question, we built on the notion of microfoundations that undergird the high-level dynamic capabilities of sensing, seizing, and reconfiguring. Adopting a theory elaboration approach, we studied the case of a firm evolving in a turbulent environment, which had outsourced the quasi-totality of its IT services and had a mature IT architecture. From the case data, we specify two types of microfoundations: repeatability-related microfoundations (i.e. processes) and ability-related microfoundations (i.e. IT department structure, skills, simple rules, and communications) that undergird either information technology outsourcing dynamic capabilities or IT architecture dynamic capabilities. We propose a model that outlines how the interaction between repeatability-related microfoundations, supported by ability-related microfoundations, enables the reconfiguration of IT solutions. Our study also elucidates how a firm can follow a logic of opportunity enabled by their IT outsourcing and IT architecture dynamic capabilities.

MIS Quarterly
Vol. 43, No.2, pp. 623-647 (Juin 2019), DOI: 10.25300/MISQ/2019/14439
Roman Lukyanenko, Jeffrey Parsons, Yolanda. F. Wiersma, Mahed Madda

As crowdsourced user-generated content becomes an important source of data for organizations, a pressing question is how to ensure that data contributed by ordinary people outside of traditional organizational boundaries is of suitable quality to be useful for both known and unanticipated purposes. This research examines the impact of different information quality management strategies, and corresponding data collection design choices, on key dimensions of information quality in crowdsourced user-generated content. We conceptualize a contributor-centric information quality management approach focusing on instance-based data collection. We contrast it with the traditional consumer-centric fitness-for-use conceptualization of information quality that emphasizes class-based data collection. We present laboratory and field experiments conducted in a citizen science domain that demonstrate trade-offs between the quality dimensions of accuracy, completeness (including discoveries), and precision between the two information management approaches and their corresponding data collection designs. Specifically, we show that instance-based data collection results in higher accuracy, dataset completeness, and number of discoveries, but this comes at the expense of lower precision. We further validate the practical value of the instance-based approach by conducting an applicability check with potential data consumers (scientists, in our context of citizen science). In a follow-up study, we show, using human experts and supervised machine learning techniques, that substantial precision gains on instance-based data can be achieved with post-processing. We conclude by discussing the benefits and limitations of different information quality and data collection design choices for information quality in crowdsourced user-generated content.

Journal of Strategic Information Systems
Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 118-144 (Juin 2019), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsis.2019.01.003
Gregory Vial

Extant literature has increased our understanding of specific aspects of digital transformation, however we lack a comprehensive portrait of its nature and implications. Through a review of 282 works, we inductively build a framework of digital transformation articulated across eight building blocks. Our framework foregrounds digital transformation as a process where digital technologies create disruptions triggering strategic responses from organizations that seek to alter their value creation paths while managing the structural changes and organizational barriers that affect the positive and negative outcomes of this process. Building on this framework, we elaborate a research agenda that proposes [1] examining the role of dynamic capabilities, and [2] accounting for ethical issues as important avenues for future strategic IS research on digital transformation.

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MIS Quarterly
Vol. 43, No.2, pp. 475-500 (Juin 2019), DOI: 10.25300/MISQ/2019/14505
Mohammad Moeini, Suzanne Rivard

This study proposes and tests a model that explains and predicts risk response decisions of information technology project managers (ITPMs), blending the domains of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and behavioral decision theories, and leveraging information technology project risk management behavioral research. The model posits that a risk response decision is indirectly influenced by perceived risk exposure via overall risk response attitude. The model conceptualizes perceived risk exposure and overall risk response attitude as second-order constructs and examines the dimension-level relationships within each. The model hypothesizes that a risk response decision is also influenced by pressures ITPMs perceive for or against enacting a specific risk response, by a negative synergy effect between overall risk response attitude and perceived pressures, and by their perception of control—or lack thereof—over enacting the risk response. The model was instantiated for three specific risk responses: having user representatives as team members, appreciating team members’ work in a tangible way during the project, and dedicating much effort to planning. Each model instance was tested in a separate survey (N > 111 per survey, total N = 349). The results support the hypotheses, except for the influence of perceived control, which varied across instantiations of risk responses. Among other antecedents, overall risk response attitude is found to have the strongest effect on risk response decisions. The findings stress the effect of ITPMs’ salient beliefs about specific risk responses on their decision to enact a given response and thus pave the way for designing behavior change interventions.