MIS Quarterly Vol. 46(1), mars 2022, pp. 1-34 Stefan Tams
Evidence shows that older users have lower performance levels for IT-enabled tasks than younger users. This is alarming at a time when the workforce is rapidly aging and organizational technologies are proliferating. Since the explanation for these lower performance levels remains unclear, managers are not sure how to help older users realize their full potential as contributors to organizational success. The research model presented here identifies the declining information-processing speed of older workers as the cause of their reduced capacity to perform IT-enabled tasks. According to the model, IT experience and IT self-efficacy reduce the negative impacts of this decline, whereas IT overload and the effort cost of IT use aggravate them. To test the model, data were collected using three complementary studies. The results supported the model and indicated five ways that organizations can help older users improve their capacity to perform IT-enabled tasks. Additional data collected in interviews with human resources directors confirmed the relevance of these solutions.
Championing is key to the success of an IT implementation. Recently, changes in the nature of technologies used in organizational contexts and changing organizational structures call for a renewed focus on IT championing in order to explain its distributed nature. Following an analytic induction approach and drawing from semi-structured interviews with 37 practitioners (physicians, residents, nurses, IT staff and administrators) in three healthcare-related settings, the study conceptualizes distributed IT championing as a process constituted of multiple individuals’ behaviors, unfolding over time, that proactively go beyond formal job requirements in support of an IT implementation. While multiple individuals may enact similar championing behaviors, the data indicates that multiple individuals may also enact distinct, yet complementary, championing behaviors over the course of the IT implementation. Overall, distributed IT championing evolves through cycles of distinct stages of bridging-in, bonding, and bridging-out, with each stage being shaped by different dimensions of social capital. Also, IT artifacts that are particularly generative appear more conducive to distributed IT championing than closed ones. This paper contributes to extant literature on IT championing by developing a process model of distributed IT championing in the context of an IT implementation.
MIS Quarterly Vol. 45(4), déc. 2021, pp. 2175-2172
Inmyung Choi, Sunghun Chung, Kunsoo Han, Alain Pinsonneault
Despite the importance of information technology (IT) innovation in today’s digitalized world, little research attention has been paid to examining how firms can incentivize IT innovation. To fill this gap, the current study investigates the impact of managerial incentives provided to chief executive officers (CEOs) on IT innovation, measured by the number of IT patents. In particular, we examine the role of risk-taking incentives provided to CEOs, captured by the sensitivity of CEO wealth to stock return volatility (i.e., Vega). Vega can motivate CEOs to engage in risky IT innovation projects by aligning their wealth with firm-specific risk. In so doing, we focus on how CEOs’ IT-related human capital (i.e., IT education and IT experience) moderates the relationship between Vega and IT innovation. Our empirical analyses reveal that a higher Vega encourages CEOs to support more IT innovation; more importantly, the impact of Vega on the amount of IT patents is stronger for firms with CEOs who have higher levels of IT education and IT experience. Our study contributes to research and practice by conceptualizing a CEO’s IT-related human capital and validating its moderating role in the relationship between risk-taking incentives provided to the CEO and the amount of IT innovation.
MIS Quarterly Vol. 45(3), sept. 2021, pp. 1087-1112
Emmanuelle Vaast and Alain Pinsonneault
Occupations are increasingly embedded with and affected by digital technologies. These technologies both enable and threaten occupational identity and create two important tensions: they make the persistence of an occupation possible while also potentially rendering it obsolete; and, they bring about both similarity and distinctiveness of an occupation with regards to other occupations. Based on the critical case study of an online community dedicated to data science, we investigate longitudinally how data scientists address the two tensions of occupational identity associated with digital technologies and reach transient syntheses in terms of “optimal distinctiveness” and “persistent extinction.” We propose that identity work associated with digital technologies follows a composite life-cycle and dialectical process. We explain that people constantly need to adjust and redefine their occupational identity, i.e. how they define who they are and what they do. We contribute to scholarship on digital technologies and identity work by illuminating how people deal in an ongoing manner with digital technologies that simultaneously enable and threaten their occupational identity.
Goals are the prism through which actors perceive the affordances of technological artifacts. Yet, personal goals have not been differentiated conceptually and the learning mechanism through which they shape individuals’ perception of affordances has not been examined. This paper addresses these gaps theoretically and empirically. Drawing on achievement goal theory, we conceptualize IT affordances as goal-oriented learning outcomes. We then develop a research model that describes several mediated pathways, in which the impact of personal goals on IT affordance perceptions passes through IT-focused learning strategies. The results of the empirical study support the theoretical model and depict three distinct pathways. Specifically, performance-avoidance goals are positively associated with surface processing, which leads to perceptions of common in-role IT affordances. Performance-approach goals are positively associated with surface processing and effort regulation and these learning strategies lead to perceptions of common and specialized in-role IT affordances. Mastery goals are associated with deep processing, effort regulation, and peer learning, which are positively associated with perceptions of specialized in-role and extra-role IT affordances. The paper offers new insights on how and why employees perceive different IT affordances. The affordances we study are conceptualized and operationalized at a level of abstraction that can be used to study affordance perception across actors, technologies and contexts. The paper opens new avenues for future research on affordances and on related post-implementation phenomena.
Digital platforms for knowledge work (DPKW), such as Upwork, Freelancer, and Fiverr, connect clients with millions of workers for a range of knowledge work services, including app development, graphic design, and data analytics. Research on this emergent phenomenon has recently gained traction in terms of publication volume and research diversity. Focusing on the contributions of information systems research, we conducted a literature review to distinguish papers on DPKW from related types of digital platforms, to synthesize what we know about knowledge work on DPKW, and to guide future research. Based on a comprehensive literature search, we derived five boundary conditions, which constitute our definition of DPKW: digitality, value network paradigm, centralized governance, contractual work, and knowledge work. We further developed a conceptual process framework of the constituent processes of DPKW. With this framework, we elaborate on an established process model to distinguish the three macrolevel processes of matching, contracting, and executing. We further examined microlevel processes suggested in extant research based on a process linking approach in order to understand how they synchronically instantiate each macrolevel process. Emphasizing the significance of the micro and macrolevel processes and the emergent stage of the literature on DPKW, we offer an agenda for future research and outline implications for practice.
Current competitive environments necessitate that firms pursue electronic integration in parallel to agility. However, most research to date has examined integration and agility relatively independently and has overlooked the relationship between them. Using coordination theory, this paper suggests that integration enables the two capabilities of agility (i.e., sensing and responding). Results from a study of 303 business unit operations of manufacturing organizations show that integration within business units and with outside partners is positively associated with process coupling of the value chain, both internally and externally. Further, both types of integration are positively associated with knowledge flow within and outside the business unit. In turn, both lead to higher capability to sense change in the business environment and respond to it with agility. This research helps us understand the integration-agility relation better by investigating the role of the knowledge and process capabilities.
Information & Management Vol. 58(3), avril 2021, art. 103427 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2021.103427
Gerit Wagner, Julian Prester, Maria P. Roche, Alexander Benlian,
Guido Schryen, Guy Paré, Mathieu Templier
Review papers are essential for knowledge development in Information Systems. While some are cited twice a day, others accumulate single digit citations over a decade. The magnitude of these differences prompts us to analyze what distinguishes those reviews that have proven to be integral to scientific progress from those that might be considered less impactful. Our results highlight differences between reviews aimed at describing, understanding, explaining, and theory testing. Beyond the control variables, they demonstrate the importance of methodological transparency and the development of research agendas. These insights inform all stakeholders involved in the development and publication of review papers.
Researchers often hold a romantic view of theory, which they feel should be a complete, flawless, deep, and exhaustive explanation of a phenomenon. They also often hold a romantic view of theory building, which they envision either as emerging from trancelike writing or as the product of a straightforward deductive process. The perspective I offer is more realistic and pragmatic. I espouse the view that the outcomes of a researcher’s theorizing efforts are often incomplete explanations of a phenomenon, which, given a chance, may develop into rich theories. I propose a highly iterative spiral model that portrays theory building as a craft, which calls for care and ingenuity, and requires patience and perseverance. I also propose design principles that can contribute to the quality of the outcome of theorizing.
AI efforts can fail to move out of the lab if organizations don’t carefully manage access to data throughout the development and production life cycle. We recently studied how organizations move their AI initiatives from R&D, lablike settings into production and the problems they encounter in doing so. The research is based on interviews with key AI leaders and informants in six North American companies of different sizes and operating in different industries. A key finding is that, although many people focus on the accuracy and completeness of data to determine its quality, the degree to which it is accessible by machines — one of the dimensions of data quality — appears to be a bigger challenge in taking AI out of the lab and into the business. More important, we found that data accessibility is too often treated exclusively as an IT problem. In reality, our analysis reveals that it is a management problem aggravated by misconceptions about the nature and the role of data accessibility in AI.
Social network theory has produced conflicting results regarding the link between different social network structures—bridging versus bonding—and idea generation. To address this conundrum, we conduct a naturally occurring quasi-experiment of 126 open and 108 closed groups within an Enterprise Social Media (ESM) system of a multinational enterprise. Our findings show that idea generation occurs when the type of social network structure—bridging or bonding—is matched to a group’s openness or closedness, respectively. We further show that the reverse is counterproductive: when closed groups display bridging ties and open groups display bonding ties, idea generation is significantly undermined. Theoretically, these findings clarify the conditions and mechanisms by which both bridging and bonding can result in idea generation and provide a deeper understanding of the use of ESM for idea generation. Practically, our findings provide valuable and actionable insights regarding the use of ESM for idea generation in groups.
The front-end of innovation (FEI) is critical for successful innovation in contemporary organizations. Employee creativity, or creative behavior, is at the heart of the FEI and it encompasses three activities: idea generation, idea elaboration, and idea championing. Information technology (IT) can play an important role in enabling these activities but extant research has focused primarily on IT-enabled idea generation. This paper complements the extant research by examining the entire set of activities that compose FEI. Specifically, we develop a model that examines IT-enabled idea generation, IT-enabled elaboration and IT-enabled championing, and that, grounded in the componential theory of creativity, analyzes their key drivers. An empirical study establishes the applicability of the model. The paper contributes to IS research and practice by shedding light on the tripartite role that organizational IT can play in employee creativity, and it serves as a springboard for future research.
Journal of the Association for Information Systems Vol. 21(6), nov. 2020, pp. 1370-1378 DOI: 10.17705/1jais.00640 Wietske van Osch, Dorothy E. Leidner, Cynthia M. Beath
Spring 2020 is unlikely to fade into memory anytime soon, if ever. The dramatic disruptions to everyday life resulting from the various degrees of societal lockdowns experienced across the globe will have long-term repercussions for many individuals, occupations, organizations, and societies. One observation repeated in both the popular and academic presses is that the burden of the lockdown was not equitably distributed. Specifically, working women with school-aged children seemed to face even greater hurdles in managing their households and careers than did men The delicate family-work balance that these working women had managed to build during what we might now nostalgically refer to “normal” times had been shattered. To extend the balance metaphor, the scale was not just broken, it was no longer measuring anything meaningful.
Journal of the Association for Information Systems Vol. 21(4), juillet 2020, pp. 936-970 DOI: 10.17705/1jais.00625
Yasser Rahrovani, Alain Pinsonneault
The paper distinguishes two different types of innovative behaviors with information technology (IT): innovative IS use (IU) and innovating with IT (IwIT). While the former focuses on changing the technology and the work process to better support one’s existing work goals, the latter focuses on using IT to develop new work-related goals and outcomes. Drawing on Parker’s theory of proactive behavior, the paper compares the motivational antecedents and consequences of these two innovative behaviors with IT. Our model hypothesizes that three generic types of motivation differentially affect IwIT vs. IU. The paper also explores the moderating role of slack resources on the effect of motivation on the two innovative behaviors with IT. Data from a survey of 427 IT users from North American companies show that social motivation affects IwIT (but not IU); intrinsic motivation is positively related to IU (but not IwIT), and internalized extrinsic motivation affects both IU and IwIT. Further, the results indicate that the moderating role of slack resources on different motivational paths is not a one-size-fits-all effect, that is, IS slack resources only moderates the relationship between intrinsic motivation and IwIT. We also differentiated the consequences of IwIT from IU. The post hoc analysis shows that IwIT is significantly related to individual mindfulness at work, but IU is not. The paper contributes to IS research by offering a rich conceptualization of IwIT and examining its motivational antecedents and consequences, compared to IU.
Journal of Medical Internet Research Vol. 22(7), juillet 2020, art. e16300 https://doi.org/10.2196/16300 Placide Poba-Nzaou, Sylvestre Uwizeyemungu, Xuecheng Liu
The benefits from the combination of 4 clinical information systems (CISs)—electronic health records (EHRs), health information exchange (HIE), personal health records (PHRs), and telehealth—in primary care depend on the configuration of their functional capabilities available to clinicians. However, our empirical knowledge of these configurations and their associated performance implications is very limited because they have mostly been studied in isolation. This study aims to pursue 3 objectives: (1) characterize general practitioners (GPs) by uncovering the typical profiles of combinations of 4 major CIS capabilities, (2) identify physician and practice characteristics that predict cluster membership, and (3) assess the variation in the levels of performance associated with each configuration.
Journal of Management Information Systems Vol. 37(2), juin 2020, pp. 377-395 https://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.2020.1759938
Nathan W. Twyman, Jeffrey G. Proudfoot, Ann-Frances Cameron,
Eric Case, Judee K. Burgoon, Douglais P. Twitchell
Deception is an unfortunate staple in group work. Guarding against team members’ deceptive tactics and alternative agendas is difficult and may seem even more difficult in technology-driven business environments that have made multitasking during teamwork increasingly commonplace. This research develops a foundation for a nuanced theoretical understanding of deception detection under these conditions. The intersection of information technology multitasking and deception detection theories is shown to produce various and sometimes competing ideas about how this type of multitasking might affect truthfulness assessments in real-time teamwork. A laboratory study involving a collaborative game helped evaluate the different ideas using manipulated deception and multitasking behaviors in a real-time, virtual group environment. The results provide evidence that information multitasking can actually improve deception detection, likely because multitaskers engage less in the team conversation, making themselves less manipulable. As understanding of multitasking benefits increases, managers and designers can incorporate effective multitasking into collaborative processes.
The primary goal of this study is to investigate the financial returns to firms’ communication actions on a firm-initiated social media platform by focusing on Facebook Business pages. To this end, we conceptualize and quantify two types of firms’ communication actions on social media: posts and responses to customer messages. Further, we classify a firm’s responses to customer messages based on the valence of customer messages – positive vs. negative – and examine the effects of volume as well as timeliness of the two types of a firm’s responses to customer messages on firm performance. Using a sample of 63 South Korean firms across industries over a three-year period (5,566 firm-week observations), we find that the volume and timeliness of a firm’s responses to negative customer messages, which are associated with an increase in customer satisfaction, have a significant positive impact on the firm’s market performance, measured by abnormal returns and Tobin’s q. Interestingly, the results suggest that a firm’s posts and its responses to positive customer messages are not significantly associated with firm performance. Further, we find that a firm’s posts and its responses to negative customer messages exhibit complementarities in contributing to firm performance. Our results are robust to various alternative specifications, econometric concerns, and Facebook’s policy changes such as EdgeRank and Promoted Post. Our findings underscore the business value of firms’ actions on social media and provide unique and important implications for theory and practice regarding the appropriate ways to use social media for building and managing customer relationships.
Self-monitoring is a strategy that patients use to manage their chronic disease and chronic disease risk factors. Technological advances such as mobile apps, web-based tracking programs, sensing devices, wearable technologies, and insideable devices enable IT-based self-monitoring (ITSM) for chronic disease management. Since ITSM is multidisciplinary in nature and our understanding is fragmented, a systematic examination of the literature is performed to build a holistic understanding of the phenomenon. We review 159 studies published in 108 journals and conferences between 2006 and 2017. By adapting affordance actualization theory, we develop an overarching framework to organize the existing literature on ITSM for chronic disease management. Four themes emerge: key ITSM functionalities that enable affordances; effects on ITSM system use; effects on the achievement of chronic care goals; and the role of intermediary outcomes. For each theme, we identify what is known, what is unknown, and opportunities for future research. We also discuss cross-theme opportunities for future research where more diverse theoretical perspectives can contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon. This work provides research directions for IS researchers studying ITSM for chronic disease self-management.
This study proposes and tests a model of information technology outsourcing (ITO) capabilities as antecedents of ITO success. Building on the dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP), the model posits that ITO sensing, ITO seizing, and ITO orchestrating capabilities will influence ITO success by way of both successful reconfiguration of IT solutions and successful delivery of IT services. Building on extant ITO research, the model also hypothesizes that contract management capabilities and relationship management capabilities will influence ITO success via the successful delivery of IT services. Data from a cross-sectional survey of 152 large U.S.-based organizations in various industries were analyzed with PLS. The results support the hypothesis that successful reconfiguration mediates the effect of dynamic capabilities on ITO success. They partially support the hypothesis of successful delivery as mediator of the effect of dynamic capabilities on ITO success. The hypothesis of successful delivery as a mediator of the effect of relationship management capabilities and contract management capabilities on ITO success is supported only for relationship management capabilities. The study offers a theoretical anchoring for the conceptualization of ITO capabilities, which complements the rich and context-specific case-based literature of ITO capabilities and extends current research by adding to existing explanations of how ITO success is achieved.
While chronically ill patients can significantly benefit from self-management (SM) information systems, they are also unlikely to perceive, use, and benefit from them in the same way, and past research has observed that many patients tend to not use such systems effectively. A key premise of the present study is that attributing the cause of one’s success or failure in self-managing one’s chronic disease to SM information systems is likely to influence how patients react to such systems, which in turn is likely to influence their usage behaviors and SM performance. Building upon attribution theory and learned helplessness theory, this paper examines how patients’ causal attributions of their success or failure in selfmanaging their chronic illness tends to influence the way they cognitively perceive, emotionally react to, and use an ITbased SM system. It also examines what constituted effective use in the SM context that was studied and how patients’ effective use of an IT-based SM system tended to influence their SM performance. Based on data collected from patients who were using a web-based asthma SM portal, the paper identifies three SM attributional styles and three patient views of SM information systems that help explain how chronically ill patients tend to interact with such systems, as well as its consequences, and discusses the implications of its findings for research and practice.
Mobile technologies have dramatically increased the number of work-related interruptions, especially after regular work hours. At the same time, many employees have limited freedom to decide how and when they accomplish their work, a condition that renders the explosion of interruptions especially problematic. This study proposes that perceived interruption overload negatively impacts work-related technology-usage via workers’ experiences of work-life conflict, a key source of stress, and that this indirect effect is stronger for lower levels of worker control (moderated mediation). Data were collected from 601 knowledge workers and analyzed through Conditional process analysis, which integrates moderation and mediation analyses. The results supported our model. This study takes an important step toward elucidating the role of mobile technology in work-life conflict and technostress, and it illustrates the roles of perceived interruption overload as well as conflict and technostress in IT use.
MIS Quarterly Vol. 44(1b), mars 2020, pp. 421-450 10.25300/MISQ/2020/15089
Kathryn Brohman, Shamel Addas, Jeff A. Dixon, Alain Pinsonneault
While telemonitoring technology is widely used in treatment of patients with chronic diseases, our understanding of how it influences patient-related outcomes is limited. Drawing upon feedback intervention theory, the paper develops a model that examines how a telemonitoring feedback ecosystem (patient, telemonitoring technology, care provider) is related to patient behavioral outcomes. More precisely, we study the cascading effects of two types of technology feedback (medical and compliance alerts) on the provision of three types of feedback (outcome, corrective, and personal) given by care providers, and how the feedback in turn is related to patient adaptation and ultimately to calls to 911. Using generalized linear mixed modeling, we tested our hypotheses with longitudinal data from 212 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or chronic heart failure (CHF) over 26 weeks. Our results show that medical alerts had a positive association with all three types of provider feedback. By contrast, compliance alerts had curvilinear relationships with corrective and personal feedback. Our results also show that outcome feedback and personal feedback were associated with increases in patient adaptations. Patient adaptation was negatively related to the odds of calling 911. Interestingly, we found a significant negative interaction between outcome and corrective feedback and patient adaptation. Finally, our results show that while the frequency of feedback decreased over the life of the program, the amount of adaptations increased over the same period, which suggests that patient self-management improved over time. By examining a telemonitoring-based ecosystem with two stages of feedback, our study contributes to the chronic disease management literature as well as to other contexts where monitoring technologies deliver feedback that is mediated by a third party. Theoretical and practical implications of our study are discussed.
Communications of the Association for Information Systems Vol. 46, février 2020, pp. 134-186 DOI: 10.17705/1CAIS.04607
Guido Schryen, Gerit Wagner, Alexander Benlian, Guy Paré
Literature reviews (LRs) play an important role in the development of domain knowledge in all fields. Yet, we observe a lack of insights into the activities with which LRs actually develop knowledge. To address this important gap, we (1) derive knowledge building activities from the extant literature on LRs, (2) suggest a knowledge-based typology of LRs that complements existing typologies, and (3) apply the suggested typology in an empirical study that explores how LRs with different goals and methodologies have contributed to knowledge development. The analysis of 240 LRs published in 40 renowned IS journals between 2000 and 2014 allows us to draw a detailed picture of knowledge development achieved by one of the most important genres in the IS field. An overarching contribution of our work is to unify extant conceptualizations of LRs by clarifying and illustrating how LRs apply different methodologies in a range of knowledge building activities to achieve their goals with respect to theory.
Journal of the Association for Information Systems Vol. 21(1), janvier 2020, art. 3 DOI: 10.17705/1jais.00597 Stefan Tams, Alina Dulipovici, Jason B. Thatcher, Kevin Craig, Mark Srite
A growing body of literature examines how to elicit knowledge contributions to electronic knowledge repositories (EKRs) with the goal of helping organizations increase implementation benefits. While this literature has explained in detail the initial EKR adoption by knowledge contributors, it has not yet examined the drivers of postadoptive EKR usage for contributing knowledge. Postadoptive EKR usage, such as innovative feature use, can potentially result in richer contributions to EKRs. To aid understanding of how to unlock the benefits of EKRs for organizations, this study examines the impact of basic human values on one type of postadoptive behavior that goes well beyond basic usage: trying to innovate with EKR features. We develop a research model that integrates human values and trying to innovate with EKRs, suggesting that human values indicate modes of independent thought and action and can lead to attempts to innovate in EKR use by increasing the frequency of EKR usage. Data collected from 233 knowledge workers support the model. Our findings shed light on how to encourage innovative EKR usage and underscore the importance of human values for the success of knowledge management initiatives.