The View from Giants’ Shoulders: Developing Theory with Systematic Literature Reviews. Information systems researchers, and indeed most social scientists, face two related challenges regarding literature reviews. First, although numerous guides exist for developing theory, these provide limited help in carefully gathering material from past research that can serve as material for new theory development. Second, although there are numerous guides for conducting literature reviews, none focuses squarely on theory development. However, in order to adopt any theory construction approach or to craft a literature review that contributes to theory, each step of the review of prior literature should explicitly focus on the elements of theory (that is, concepts, relationships and explanations). Thus, in this article we present guidelines for conducting a systematic literature review (also known as a systematic review) where the central focus is theory development. Drawing from theory development and literature reviewing guides from a wide variety of disciplines, these guidelines show how to carefully focus on the substance of theory in each step of the literature review process, so that researchers can stand on the shoulders of foregoing scholarly giants to see farther with new, insightful theories.
Jason Thatcher, Clemson University (Clemson, South Carolina)
Computer-Based Training to Mitigate Threats from Customized Phishing Attacks: A Mindfulness Approach. Despite significant investments in technology to combat phishing, billions of dollars are lost each year due to individuals reading and acting on illicit requests for personal information. To mitigate the threat of phishing, we examine how to train individuals to better recognize and respond to phishing messages. We explore how a novel training approach that leverages the notion of mindfulness can serve as a final layer of defense against phishing for firms. Our mindfulness training approach encourages users to move from cursory evaluation of incoming email via heuristics to carefully scrutinizing emails that contain calls for action. To evaluate our approach’s effectiveness, we developed a mindfulness-based training program as well as a rule-based training program that is consistent with current anti-phishing training programs. We then tested their effectiveness in a field study in a Mid-western university that involved 1039 email users. To test the robustness of the mindfulness approach, we delivered each training program in one of two formats (text-only or graphics). Following training, our users were subjected to an actual phishing attack that used customized and generic phishing messages. Our findings provide support for the mindfulness approach as a more effective means of assisting users to avoid responding to phishing attacks than rule-based approaches.
Analyses économiques liées à la mise en place de deux programmes de télésoins à domicile au Québec : Résultats et leçons apprises. Les bénéfices cliniques associés à la mise en place de programmes de télésoins à domicile ont fait l’objet de plusieurs études. Cependant, la viabilité économique de ces programmes a été très peu évaluée et les problèmes méthodologiques sont fréquents lors de l’analyse de la preuve, rendant ainsi difficile la comparaison entre les télésoins et les soins à domicile traditionnels. La présente étude, qui fut financée par le Ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux, tente de combler ce manque dans la littérature. Précisément, nous avons mené une étude de minimisation des coûts (Drummond, 1997) en lien avec deux programmes de télésoins à domicile implantés au Québec en 2010-2011. La première étude, qui s’est déroulée au CSSS Jardins-Roussillon en Montérégie, a pris la forme d’une étude de cohorte avec 95 patients atteints de diverses maladies chroniques. L’étude suivante, qui fut menée au même moment au Service régional de soins à domicile de l’hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, a pris la forme d’un essai comparatif randomisé avec 120 patients atteints de maladies pulmonaires obstructives chroniques. La période totale d’observation pour chacune de ces deux études fut d’un peu plus de 21 mois, couvrant ainsi trois périodes (pré, per et post). Les principaux résultats ainsi que les leçons apprises lors de la réalisation de ces études de nature économique seront présentées.
Placide Poba-Nzaou, GReSI Member, Université du Québec à Montréal
Bridging Practice and Theory in Enterprise System Implementation: A Design Science Approach. In spite of ardent efforts in diverse domains of research over decades, the objective of making academic research relevant to the practitioner continue to be difficult to realize: “theoretical and academic research interests do not seem to coincide with the interests of managerial practice” (Holmström et al., 2009). The gap between research and practice is notably evident in the area of Enterprise Systems implementation. Although there is an abundant literature on critical success factors related to Enterprise Systems implementation, the failure rate of these complex undertakings is still high. Despite many calls, very few attempts have been made to investigate new approaches for managing Enterprise Systems implementation. Until recently, limited attention has been paid to the implementation teams and how to make them more effective. Adopting the design-science paradigm, which is a problem solving paradigm as opposed to accumulation of theoretical knowledge, our study leverages the extant literature on Enterprise Systems critical success factors, CIO roles, HR roles as well as shared leadership theory to develop an artifact aimed at improving Enterprise Systems implementation outcomes. The resulting artifact in the form of a model provides prescriptions on the application of shared leadership to Enterprise Systems implementation.
Information Technologies in Healthcare: the intertwining of social and material. Information technology has become ubiquitous in healthcare organizations, yet researchers and practitioners alike still struggle to fully comprehend its impact and how it influences organizational change. To fill this gap, this research adopts a different way of seeing and investigating health information technology (HIT), specifically the sociomaterial angle (Orlikowski and Scott, 2008; Leonardi, 2011). The concept of sociomateriality “posits the inherent inseparability between the technical and the social” (Orlikowski and Scott, 2008, p. 454). Thus, technology, people and organizations should not be seen as single entities that influence each other, but rather as constitutively entangled, implying that we can separate them only analytically. This research project will focus on the intertwining of human agency (people and organizations) and material agency (technology) to understand (a) how temporal meanings, organizational boundaries, and functional properties are continually reproduced, (b) how individual technologies-in-use become shared technology-in-practice, and (c) how these imbrications create mechanisms for organizational change.
Selective Attention as a Protagonist in Contemporary Workplace Stress: Implications for the Interruption Age. The ubiquity of instant messages and email notifications in contemporary work environments has opened a Pandora’s Box for organizations. This box is filled with countless interruptions coming from laptops, smartphones, and other devices, all of which constantly beep, blink, and call for employees’ attention. In this interruption era, workplace stress is a pervasive problem. To examine this problem, the present study applied person-environment fit theory as well as research and theory on selective attention. Insights from these theories were used to hypothesize that the three-way interaction among the frequency with which interrupting stimuli appear, their salience, and employees’ deficits in inhibiting attentional responses to them impacts mental workload perceptions, ultimately leading to stress. The study further tested a related form of self-efficacy as a potential suppressor of interruption-based stress.