René Riedl, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria (Linz, Autriche)
What every information systems researcher should know about measurement in NeuroIS. Neuro-Information-Systems (NeuroIS) relies on neuroscience and neurophysiological knowledge and tools to better understand the development, use, and impact of information and communication technologies. The genesis of the NeuroIS field took place in 2007. It follows that the NeuroIS field is still in a relatively nascent stage, even though several conceptual and empirical contributions already exist. Importantly, IS scholars need to become familiar with the methods, tools, and measurements that are used in cognitive neuroscience and in related disciplines (e.g., psychophysiology). Based on a higher degree of familiarity, IS researchers (editors, reviewers, and authors) can develop sound methodological knowledge that is necessary to evaluate whether or not a specific method, tool, or measurement is suitable to study a specific IS research question and whether a method or tool is correctly applied. Without such a knowledge base, IS scholars cannot leverage the full potential of neuroscience for IS research. Against this background, and considering that measurement themes have only recently begun to become a major topic in the NeuroIS literature, Dr. Riedl will discuss important aspects related to measurement in NeuroIS.
La recherche en expérience utilisateur au Tech3Lab de HEC Montréal. La compréhension systématique et précise de l’expérience utilisateur, c.-à-d. la perception et la réponse, tant affective que cognitive, d’un individu résultant de son utilisation d’un produit, d’un système ou d’un service, constitue un enjeu prioritaire de la recherche en TI. Cette compréhension revêt aussi un caractère essentiel pour les organisations souhaitant offrir des interfaces pouvant répondre aux besoins évolutifs des différents utilisateurs. Le Tech3Lab de HEC Montréal est un laboratoire de recherche appliquée en sciences de la gestion dont l’expertise réside dans la synchronisation d’une riche gamme de données relativement à l’expérience utilisateur. Financée par la Fondation canadienne pour l’innovation (FCI) et le gouvernement du Québec, l’infrastructure du Tech3Lab permet d’étudier l’expérience utilisateur en utilisant une approche multi-méthode couplée à une analyse par triangulation de données neurophysiologiques, physiologiques, psychologiques et comportementales récoltées en temps réel durant l’interaction. À l’occasion de cette conférence, des exemples de résultats récents et de projets en cours seront présentés. De plus, un aperçu de l’infrastructure des technologies du Laboratoire sera présenté afin de faire découvrir les outils et environnements de recherche disponibles aux chercheurs du GReSI.
Khaled Hassanein, McMaster University (Hamilton, Ont.)
Adoption of Electronic Personal Health Records by Chronic Disease Patients. With the increasing prevalence of chronic disease throughout the world, the use of electronic Personal Health Records (ePHRs) has been suggested as a way to improve chronic disease self-management. However, ePHRs are not yet widely used by chronic disease patients or the general public. Following a brief introduction to ePHRs and their potential benefits, Dr. Hassanein will draw on theories from the healthcare and information systems literatures to introduce a research model developed to explain the factors that influence the adoption of ePHRs by chronic disease patients for the self-management of their disease. The results of a survey-based study involving 230 patients with diabetes used to empirically validate the proposed model will be presented. The impact of educational interventions on various elements of the proposed model will also be examined. The talk ends with a summary of the contributions of this research to both theory and practice.
Henri Barki*, GReSI Member, and Ryad Titah*, Director of GReSI, *HEC Montréal
The Construct of Attitude and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Information technology acceptance and use is a focal topic in the information systems field, and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) is a well-known model that explains a significant percentage of variance in IT usage-related intentions and behaviors. However, given the well-established role that attitudes play in influencing human behaviors in general, the present paper re-examines IS scholars’ exclusion of the attitude construct from UTAUT and other related models, and suggests that earlier formed attitudes are likely to significantly influence subsequently formed individual performance and effort expectancy beliefs, not only in work-related contexts, but particularly in hedonic contexts as well. The results of Partial Least Squares analysis of data collected immediately following the implementation of an IT and six months later from a matched sample of 293 users in 17 different organizations, as well as from 401 users of Facebook provided strong support for including the attitude construct in UTAUT as an antecedent of performance and effort expectancy beliefs. The results of the present study suggest that researchers need to consider re-incorporating attitude as a key construct in studies of IT acceptance and use.
Stacie Petter, Hankamer School of Business / Baylor University (Waco, Texas)
Information Systems Success: The Quest for New Perspectives on the Dependent Variable. Over twenty years ago, DeLone and McLean published the information systems (IS) success model to respond to the question that asked “what is the dependent variable in the information systems field.” The articles by DeLone and McLean that identify the original and updated IS success models have been cited nearly 15,000 times according to Google Scholar. The digital world we live in is ever-changing, and the lens of IS success still has the potential to be relevant to explore and understand emerging phenomena. In this presentation, Dr. Petter will share examples in which the IS success model can be leveraged to offer insights to academia and practice in the study of how technology impacts society, organizations, teams, and individuals.
Ping Zhan, Syracuse University (Syracuse, New York)
Artifacts in IS Research: The Changing Faci over Time. The concept of artifact plays an important role in IS research. To some extent, the meanings and manifestation of the artifact concept defines what IS discipline is about. Therefore, to understand the state of IS research is to understand (1) what are considered artifacts by IS scholars, and (2) how do IS scholars approach these artifacts in their studies. This study addresses these two questions by providing a conceptual model of various types of artifacts and a multi-facet framework of IS scholars’ approaches to studying artifacts. Using a critical literature review, the conceptualizations are tested with the collective wisdom by IS scholarly work published in 1990, 2000, and 2010 of ICIS proceedings, and MISQ and ISR journals. The findings shed light on the changing faci of IS discipline over time. Implications for research and practice are discussed. This study contributes to our continued understanding of the development and evolution of the IS discipline and the potential directions it may take.
Jens Dibbern, University of Bern (Bern, Switzerland)
Heterogeneous Responses of Users to ERP Fits and Misfits. In recent years, research on the effectiveness of business information systems has increasingly shifted its focus from adoption and implementation to actual usage. Research and practice have come to realize that users can enact information systems in very different ways. Interestingly, such human agency has also been observed in the context of types of systems that, by their very design, are notoriously inflexible systems that do not allow users to tailor the system to fit their individual needs. The most prominent example of such systems is ERP systems. In spite of all the foresight and effort by the designers, implementers and instructors of ERP systems, it is only through the actual day-to-day use that the actual fit between the system and the jobs of the users can be assessed. Thus, users may perceive system-fit differently and, in response, may also react to fits or misfits heterogeneously. This research explores these heterogeneous responses of users to ERP fits and misfits based on a qualitative empirical study of a major ERP implementation project at Swiss Federal Railways Corporation. The project was about the replacement of the existing ERP module for procurement with a new one that was aimed at better fitting with organizational needs. The individually perceived fits and misfits by a set of 18 users in three different areas were analyzed in depths. The results seek to explain how and why users responded differently to similar fits and misfits.
Frantz Rowe, Université de Nantes (Nantes, France)
Sharing sticky knowledge in new product development with suppliers: a configurational approach of PLM use for glitch avoidance. Knowledge sharing is critical for New Product Development (NPD), especially when suppliers are involved but the contribution of IT to knowledge sharing is unclear. Whereas the contribution of IT to explicit knowledge sharing is well researched, this paper investigates the contribution of IT to avoid misunderstandings related to sticky knowledge in NPD projects. Sticky glitches are misunderstandings that have significant negative outcomes, some of which can be avoided with IT solutions. This study investigates two conditions: supplier responsibility and technological novelty. These conditions influence integration interdependence and sharing needs, for which the configurations of Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) sub systems (Organisational Memory Systems, Project and Resource Memory Systems and Cooperative Work Systems) and boundary spanner participation effectively support sticky knowledge sharing with suppliers. This study adopts the Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) method, which is particularly suited when multiple configurations can obtain the same results. The use of fuzzy-set QCA shows that in projects where the supplier responsibility is high, the use of PLM has to be combined with human mediation of a boundary spanner to support effective sticky knowledge sharing. However, in projects where the supplier responsibility is limited, the combined use of Organisational Memory Systems (OMS), Project and Resource Management Systems (PRMS) and Cooperative Work Systems (CWS) that are part of PLM systems is sufficient for effective sticky knowledge sharing. These results seem independent of technological novelty of the product and contribute to a better understanding of IT contribution to effective sharing of sticky knowledge in a globalization and integration interdependence context.
Daniel Robey, Georgia State University (Atlanta, Georgia)
Sociomateriality and Other Temptations: Bandwagons, Fashions, and Organizing Visions in Information Systems Research. In this presentation, Professor Robey examines issues related to information systems (IS) researchers’ choices of research topics. IS researchers often select “hot topics” because they are seen as more relevant, progressive and cutting-edge than older, more enduring topics. Drawing from literature in economics (bandwagon effects), institutional theory (management fashions), and innovation theory (organizing visions), he argues that hot topics are shaped to attract interest, but that they are inherently transient and risky. To understand these risks, he proposes a process model with three stages: (1) excitement, (2) complication and (3) fading interest. These stages are illustrated with reference to the topic of sociomateriality, a theoretical approach to understanding work practices as inherently both social and material. Because topic choices accumulate to define individual research careers, he offers constructive advice on responding to the temptations that hot topics present. Specifically, scholars can use bandwagons to their advantage if they (1) join early, (2) engage with complications and (3) tie bandwagon topics into more enduring research discourses.
Dorothy E. Leidner, Baylor University (Waco, Texas)
Can Information Transparency Make A Difference? The Effects of Pricing and Attribute Information Disclosure on Environmentally Sustainable Consumer Choice. A number of studies have argued that recent technological and informational affordances can guide consumer behavior towards more environmentally sustainable patterns of consumption. Drawing insights from existing research on information transparency and message framing, the present paper contributes to a better understanding of this relationship by examining the combined effects of pricing and attribute information on consumers’ choice patterns. We test our inferences by conducting a stated choice experiment in the context of a self-developed online grocery store. Our results show that the disclosure of negative information is not harmful per se, but that its effects are primarily contingent upon pricing information. Most importantly, we find that the actual content of the negative information moderates the relationship between product pricing and consumer choice. We discuss the implications of our results for the literature on environmental sustainability, information transparency, consumer behavior, as well as for practitioners.
Suprateek Sarker, McIntire School of Commerce / University of Virginia (Charlottesville, Virginia)
The Practice of Qualitative Research in the IS Discipline: An Evolutionary View and Some Implications for Authors and Evaluators. Qualitative Research in the Information Systems discipline has come a long way, from being dismissed as “exploratory research” or “pre-research,” not worthy of being featured in leading “scientific” journals in the discipline, to a state where such research is seen as legitimate and even welcome within much of the mainstream IS research community. Despite these very positive developments in line with the value of pluralism that our discipline has embraced, and the gradual inclusion of qualitative work in high-profile mainstream outlets, noted academics have expressed concerns about the “disproportionately low number of qualitative articles in top journals,” and attributed this pattern to (among other reasons) “perceptions of negative bias against qualitative approaches from editors and reviewers in leading journals” (Conboy et al. 2012, p. 113). To help make sense of the situation, in this paper, we offer a critical commentary on the arena of qualitative research in the Information Systems discipline, reflecting on why reviewer or editorial evaluations of qualitative manuscripts, with respect to methodological issues, are often perceived as being “prejudiced” (Markus 1997). By viewing the adoption of qualitative research in the IS discipline as an evolutionary process, and by highlighting key differences among the various types of qualitative inquiry, a number of implications for both authors and evaluators of qualitative manuscripts become visible.
Alain Pinsonneault, GReSI Member, McGill University
Electronic messaging interruptions and individual performance: A tale of two interruption types. Communication technologies, such as electronic messaging, are transforming organizational work in numerous important ways, one of which being that they interrupt and fragment work. While such interruptions are widespread and ubiquitous, our understanding of how they influence individual performance is limited. This paper distinguishes between two types of electronic messaging interruptions (intrusions and interventions) and draws on psychological theories of attention allocation to examine their direct and indirect effects on task performance. The results show that the two types of interruptions had different effects on performance. On one hand, intrusions (interruptions that orient attention away from the main tasks) negatively affected performance and their effects were fully mediated by subjective workload. Perceived control and multitasking self-efficacy reduced the negative effects on subjective workload and enhanced performance. On the other hand, ICT-induced interventions (interruptions that orient attention on the main task) were positively related to performance. Their effects were fully mediated by individual mindfulness. Surprisingly, perceived control also directly negatively influenced mindfulness instead of positively moderating the effect of interventions on mindfulness. Contributions and implications for research and practice are discussed.
Dragos Vieru*, TÉLUQ, and Simon Bourdeau*, Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM), *GReSI’s Members
Digital Competence: A Multi-dimensional Conceptualization and a Typology in an SME Context. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) need to rely on information and communication technologies (ICT) to survive in the digital economy. Although the literature emphasizes the link between individual digital competence (DC) and ICT use and adoption, there is a lack of understanding of how DC can be conceptualized in an SME context. Drawing on the existing literatures on SMEs and DC and on the change agentry perspective, this exploratory study proposes a multi-dimensional conceptualization of DC and advances a typology of three DC archetypes of SME employees: Technical Expert, Organizer, and Campaigner. We provide results from a multi-case study of three Canadian SMEs suggesting that the development of DC should take into consideration the complementarity nature of the technological, social and cognitive aspects of the DC in order to successfully implement new technologies in SMEs.
Hillol Bala, Kelley School of Business / Indiana University (Bloomington, Indiana)
A Tough Process to Perform? Complementary Role of Process Characteristics, Time, and Process Knowledge in Predicting IT-Enabled Process Performance. Organizations implement enterprise systems to support and enable business processes. Prior research has suggested that employees perceive that these systems make business processes complex and rigid. There is ample evidence in both research and practitioner literatures that implementation of enterprise systems fail due to employee resistance, avoidance, and/or perfunctory use. In many cases, it takes a long time for organizations to receive intended benefits from these systems and associated business processes because employees find it difficult to execute such complex and rigid business processes.
Benoit Aubert, GReSI Member, Victoria University of Wellington (Wellington, N. Z.)
Ghosts haunting our Infrastructure : the Eternal life of legacy applications. Research on Information Systems has looked intensively at information system adoption. Very little consideration has been given to systems decommissioning. Most theoretical approaches implicitly consider that the old system is replaced by the new one. Unfortunately, it is not as simple. A few years ago, Furneaux and Wade showed that many factors prevented a company from turning a system off. This research, using a case study, looks at the challenges associated with the decommissioning of systems, and the processes that it entails.