Placide Poba-Nzaou,  GReSI Member, Université du Québec à Montréal

Electronic Health Records Adoption by European Hospitals: A Configuration AnalysisElectronic Health Records (EHRs) are considered critical for the delivery of high quality healthcare, saving time, money and lives. As well, their effects on hospitals’ processes depend on the patterns of functional capabilities that are used by clinicians and allied healthcare professionals. However, our knowledge of patterns of EHR functional capabilities is limited and most available studies have been conducted within the confines of the United States. Based on data from a European Union region-wide survey, we used factor analysis and a combination of hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering algorithms followed by discriminant analysis to identify patterns of European Acute Care public hospitals based on clinical functional capabilities made available to clinicians. We empirically derive a 3-cluster solution, composed of three well-separated groups, from a data set of 1056 European Acute Care Hospitals. Statistically, differences in hospitals’ characteristics were found among clusters. From a practical standpoint, these results are of interest for policymakers and healthcare managers for the development of strategies or policies aimed at stimulating EHR adoption. They are also of interest for EHR vendors as they unveil the configuration of the existing landscape along with influencing characteristics.

Élise Labonté-LeMoyne, Post-doctoral Fellow, Tech3Lab, HEC Montréal

Physical Interaction with Technology: Kinesiology as a Reference Discipline for Information Systems ResearchIn an era of constantly evolving technology, we are using more and more of our bodies to interact with our technological devices. While prior interfaces required small movement of wrists and fingers to work the keyboard and mouse, we now, for example, use multiple fingers on a tactile interface while holding the device with the other hand and walking down the street. All of this additional movement of our bodies changes the dynamics of how we interact with information systems, and consequently impacts our perceptions, motivations, and decisions in everyday tasks. In this paper we present a new reference discipline, kinesiology that can inform the study of our physical interactions with technology. We also propose two new variables, direct and indirect physicality, that can be used to better understand how this physicality can affect the user’s perceptions and behaviors.

Hanieh Moshki, Ph. D. Candidate, Canada Research Chair in Information Technology Implementation and Management, HEC Montréal.

Coping with Information Privacy Breaches: An Exploratory Framework. The increasing number of information privacy breaches undertaken by IT companies and the reliance of different governmental regulatory regimes on complaints to initiate privacy breach investigations point to the need for better understanding the factors that influence the behaviors of those who perceive themselves to have been victims of information privacy breaches. Given that little research has examined the behavioral and emotional reactions of information privacy breach victims, the present study develops a research framework that is based on coping theory. The framework identifies individual and environmental factors whose different configurations are hypothesized to influence the reactions of individual privacy breach victims. We propose to use Qualitative Comparative Analysis as an analytical approach to examine how different configurations of factors identified in the proposed framework influence different coping instances of privacy breach victims. Keywords: information privacy breach, PIPEDA, Coping, Conceptual Framework, Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

Dr. Jeffrey Word, Vice President, Product Strategy – Database & Technology Group, SAP

Real-Time-in-Memory Processing of Big Data and its Application in Science, Engineering and BusinessIn this presentation, Dr. Jeffrey Word discussed the paradigm shift in real-time application programming and speed of innovation in the software industry, which is being powered by SAP HANA. Dr. Word has reviewed general in-memory computation concepts before illustrating the exponential increase in the renovation of existing enterprise applications and the development of innovative new applications. Multiple examples from SAP and its ecosystem of customers and partners were used to illustrate the « new normal » of real-time programming principles and business benefits.

Alira Tafti, University of Illinois at Chicago (Chicago, IL)

Digital Convergence in the Economic Network of Firms. Digital technology can be found almost everywhere, from the complex control systems of our cars’ engines to the tiny computers driving our electric toothbrushes. This pervasive embedding of electronics and communication capabilities in everyday objects has come about through a process of digital convergence. Digital convergence, the integration of digital capacities into many types of products and services, is an economic phenomenon with implications for the performance and sustainability of firms. Dr. Tafti will present evidence on digital convergence with three distinct approaches to model the ecosystem of firms’ digital resources as an evolving economic network: the network of corporate acquisitions, the network of strategic alliances, and the network that connects firms through the diversification of their products and services. Using these three types of economic networks, Dr. Tafti will also present visual and empirical evidence on digital convergence over the past three decades. In particular, he examines the evolving proximity of firms to the software industry within these three economic networks, and examines how network proximity to the software industry affects technology investment, firm performance, and industry demand for labor.

Cathy Urquhart, Manchester Metropolitan University (United Kingdom)

Grounded theory’s best kept secret: The ability to build theoryWhile the power and influence of GTM (Grounded Theory Method) as a qualitative research method in all academic disciplines continues to evolve and grow, the original intent of Glaser and Strauss to build theory, and build it ambitiously, across and over different data sets and settings, seems to be rarely discussed in the literature. GTM is popularly used as a tool for analyzing data, but less frequently to build theory per se. This seminar discusses how GTM approaches moving substantive theory to formal theory, and sets that discussion in the context of current theory building debates in the discipline of information systems. We also discuss various myths about GTM use that may deter people from using it – and set the record straight.

Kathryn Brohman, Smith School of Business / Queen’s University (Kingston, Ont.)

Coordinating Complex Systems by Formalizing Awareness Using Remote Monitoring TechnologyIn today’s world of big data, mobile devices, and ubiquitous connectivity, improving the effective use of data is of prime concern to both IS researchers and practitioners. Our research develops the concept of connectedness as a mechanism for coordinating behavior. Connectedness is a dynamic state of business-IT alignment that highlights the role of active awareness to enhance the ability use information technology (IT) effectively to achieve business objectives. A new research model was developed by synthesizing research using the strategic alignment perspective from organizational theory and the situational awareness perspective from ergonomic science. The model suggests that system awareness can clarify the relationship between technology and performance in complex systems environments. Five hypotheses were derived from the model for empirical testing in a healthcare context. Data were collected from 79 participants involved in a remote monitoring program designed to promote integrated and coordinated care for patients with complex needs. Results support the significant influence of awareness as a coordination mechanism and describe how remote monitoring technology enables awareness in complex environments. Implications for both research and practice are provided as well as opportunities for future research.

Mark Keil, Robinson College of Business / Georgia State University (Atlanta, GA)

Optimism Bias in Managing IT Project Risks: A Construal Level Theory Perspective. Prior research has shown that people have a tendency to be optimistic about future events (i.e., optimism bias) in a variety of settings. In this study, we suggest that optimism bias has significant implications for IT project risk management, as it may impede individuals’ judgment and decision-making in managing IT project risks. Motivated by this, we investigated optimism bias in managing IT project risks by drawing upon construal level theory (CLT). In this paper, we report the findings of two experiments (both followed an engaged scholarship approach; Experiment 1 involved a joint effort by a university research team and a 600-employee technology company, and Experiment 2 was conducted with IT project managers). The findings suggest that a high-level construal of an IT project risk leads IT project team members to have an optimistic belief about successfully managing the risk, and to evaluate a plan to manage the risk in a more optimistic manner. Further, we found that a high-level construal of IT project risks leads IT project managers to have an optimistic estimate of the effort required to manage the risks. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed.

Reza Ghaffari, Ph.D. Student* (Department of IT), and Ann-Frances Cameron, Director of GReSI, *HEC Montréal)

 How Existing Users of an Online System Try Its New Services? A Qualitative Exploration of the Influence of User-related Factors on Trial Patterns (Research-in-Progress)Providers of online systems are often interested in encouraging their users to use more and more of their services. Review of relevant literature reveals that there is limited understanding regarding the process by which existing users of online systems become initially aware of the new services of those systems and ultimately try them. We conceptualized a new relevant concept, i.e., trial pattern, based on the sequence of triggers that provoke users to actively think about using a new online service. Using an exploratory qualitative  approach, we analyzed 29 stories of 14 online users based on two prominent trial patterns – oneshot and resisting trial patterns. Particularly, we analyzed the influence of user-related factors – comprised of user’s characteristics and factors related to his/her interaction with the system and task – on these trial patterns. This analysis has uncovered four proposition thus far. These propositions are supported by the excerpts from our participants and comparison among stories.

Élise Labonté-LeMoyne*, Post-doctoral Fellow, P.-M. Léger* and Sylvain Senécal*, *Tech3Lab –HEC Montréal, and Radhika Santhanam, Price College of Business / University of Oklahoma (Oklahoma, OK)

Physical interaction with technology: research proposal for new constructs. With the unrelenting pace of digital innovation and the infiltration of digital technologies into every aspect of our society, our work, and our lives, we are faced with many new dilemmas, new questions, new uncertainties, that such innovations bring. As a result, the IS community is finding itself at several crossroads. We are now living in a world deeply infused with and shaped by digital technology, yet many of our core perspectives and theories derive from a time when computers were new and alien to the world. By the same token, previously distinct intellectual disciplines are converging and different directions forward are becoming available. Faced with new challenges of a world infused with digital technology, taking the paths forward will bring the discipline to new and unchartered territory. Tensions will occur along crossroads of academia and industry, different geographic regions, varying research traditions, open and proprietary modes of knowledge generation enterprise and consumer technologies, new realities and established theories, and the economic and social responsibilities.

Hanieh Moshki, Ph.D. Student, Canada Research Chair in IT Implementation and Management, HEC Montréal

Coping with Information Privacy Breaches: an Exploratory Study (Research-in-Progress). In this era of big data, both individuals and firms are strongly motivated to benefit from technological and analytical advancements that enable sharing, collecting and analyzing data. The transparency that information technologies (IT) can provide to product and service characteristics and the price-visibility they can offer has empowered customers, and in order to better differentiate themselves from their competition, many IT firms are making greater efforts to offer personalized experiences to customers by capturing and analyzing customer data (Reference?). While the collection and analysis of customer data by IT firms, as well as the personalized and occasionally free-of-charge services they offer to customers can benefit both parties, these approaches can also result in discriminatory and unfair practices, e.g., users who set the gender to female in their Google Ad Setting receiving fewer advertisements related to high paying jobs, user data was unfairly exploited in Facebook’s emotional contagion experiment, and Google recently stopped scanning the emails of students after facing a lawsuit in California court.

Traci J. Hess, Isenberg School of Management / University of Massachusetts Amherst (Amherst, MA)

Illuminating the Dark Side of Technology Use: A Review and Examination of Negative Affective Responses to Technology. The study of individual, affect-related consequences from technology adoption and use is gaining traction in the information systems (IS) discipline. Efforts to explore affective reactions to technology have considered positive, affective constructs (e.g., enjoyment, playfulness, flow, and personal innovativeness), with a more recent focus on the dark side of technology use, and constructs such as technostress, computer anxiety, and technology addiction. A recent theoretical advance in IS, the Affective Response Model (ARM), provides a taxonomy for categorizing affective responses to technology based on five dimensions. The development of this framework coincides with the need to establish an integrative, theoretical foundation for the study of affective constructs in IS. This presentation provides an overview of an integrative literature review for three negative affective constructs (technostress, computer anxiety and technophobia) and organizes existing antecedents, dimensions, and outcomes into a nomological network. The three concepts are differentiated from each other, and new affective concepts are proposed. Several in-progress empirical studies that examine different aspects of this nomological network are described.

Gilbert Babin, GReSI Member, HEC Montréal

Intégration SoftwIre. La demande de logiciel à la demande (Software as a Service ou SaaS) est en constante augmentation. Afin de remplir cette demande, une prolifération d’offres de services s’en suit. Pour les organisations il est crucial de trouver et sélectionner le service approprié pour l’incorporer dans le parc TI existant. Idéalement, cela est effectué de façon continue et flexible, l’objectif étant de toujours fournir le meilleur support possible. Pour faire face à cet enjeu, des standards modernes d’intégrations tels que ESB, SOA ou BPI ont été conçus pour permettre un couplage faible (loose coupling) entre les services. Par contre, il manque à ces standards la capacité de bien décrire et capter la sémantique des services.  Une nouvelle génération de techniques sémantiques vise à corriger cette situation en utilisant des ontologies. Cela devrait mener à une sélection et intégration automatique supérieure de services. Nous présentons un cadre conceptuel de sélection automatique de services, basée sur des descriptions de haut niveau des besoins d’affaires. Ces descriptions sont décrites par des ontologies. Par la suite, nous explorons une topologie spécifique de réseau neuronal artificiel. Se basant sur les expériences conduites, nous ne pouvons pas conclure que l’approche proposée est une alternative fiable pour la sélection et l’intégration de services.

Pierre Hadaya*, GReSI Member, and Philippe Marchildon*, Ph.D. Candidate*, *Université du Québec à Montréal

Understanding the Antecedents and Impact of Incumbent System Lock-In on IT Switching Behavior: A Path Dependency Perspective. The current IS literature, which extensively relies on the push-pull-mooring migration model to study IT user switching, identifies IT switching costs as the dominant explanatory factor of IT user switching. Yet, much is still to learn on the mechanisms that create these switching costs and how they can be prevented. This is an important gap to fill since IT users need answers to these questions in order to minimize the negative effects that IT switching costs may have on their switching behavior and ultimately easily switch from one software application to another. Drawing on path dependency theory (PDT), the objective of this study is to develop and test a research model that extends the PPM migration model of IT user switching with PDT tenets to also take into consideration the mechanisms that create IT switching costs and Mindfulness, a key positive and psychological factor, that may facilitate IT user switching. Data was collected by means of a field survey. Participants were students of a Canadian university enrolled in one compulsory undergraduate course in business administration. Partial least square statistical analyses, as implemented in WarpPLS, were then used to validate the measurement and structural models of this study. Our results show that three of the four self-reinforcing mechanisms proposed by PDT are positively related to IT user switching costs (i.e., complementarity, learning and adaptive expectations effects). A post-hoc analysis also shows that IT user mindfulness is negatively related to IT user switching costs.

Jane Webster, Smith School of Business / Queen’s University (Kingston, Ont.)

Gamification at Work. Business-related gamification – that is, the addition of game elements to information systems that support organizational goals – has become a popular approach for enhancing users’ experiences. Such systems may be internally-focused (e.g., systems that support employees in their work) or externally-focused (e.g., systems that engage consumers to generate new product ideas or solve problems). In either case, the systems are instrumental, but with game elements added. Examples of these might be employee ERPs (with elements such as rewards added) or consumer home energy systems (with elements such as group feedback added). However, the effects of game elements on engagement, productivity, and morale in employee and consumer systems are not well understood. Consequently, for this talk, we will first compare and contrast gamification to similar concepts such as hedonic, persuasive and intrinsically motivating information systems. Then, we will present a framework for gamification, identify gaps in the literature, and propose future avenues for research. This talk will be based on two gamification papers currently under revision (an MISQ Commentary and a literature review) – we welcome your criticism and feedback on our ideas.

Jinglu Jiang (1)*, Donald Maclean (1)* and Nura Jabagi (2)*
*Ph.D. Students. (1) HEC Montréal, (2) John-Molson School of Business / Concordia University

Communicating to Practitioners through IS Research: a Descriptive Review. Though IS researchers are continuously being encouraged to make their research more relevant for practitioners, there are still relatively few studies that have empirically assessed how relevant, and thus useful, IS research is to practitioners. The goal of this study is to assess the practical relevance of IS research now and over time to understand how contributions are presented to practitioners and whether the field has improved in addressing practitioner needs for consumable research. This descriptive review assesses 258 empirical studies published in MISQ and EJIS across three periods (1993–94, 2003–04, and 2013–14) to answer three research questions: (i) What are the major types of practical contributions in IS research; (ii) How are practical contributions structured in IS research; and (iii) Has the nature of practical recommendations changed over time? This study provides four learning lessons for IS researchers, reviewers and journals on communicating effectively to practitioners.

Alina Dulipovici, GReSI Member, HEC Montréal

« BYOD »: another buzzword from the corporate world? “BYOD” or “Bring Your Own Device” is an alternative work strategy where the employer “allows employees, business partners and other users to use a personally selected and purchased client device to execute enterprise applications and access [organizational] data” (Willis, 2013). Typically, the device refers to smartphones and tablets, but the strategy also applies to laptops and desktops. In the corporate world, it is not just a buzzword, but a growing trend that sometimes leads to innovative services and applications (Jones, 2014). According to several practitioner surveys, BYOD has become one of the most popular topics in IT. It “is going to sweep over all of enterprise computing for decades to come” (Business Wire, 2014). Given the popularity of this topic in the trade press, this research in-progress conducts a scoping review (Paré et al., 2015) of the academic literature with two primary goals. First, this study seeks to synthesize the extant research on BYOD in order to provide a portrait of what has been done in terms of type of research conducted, its nature and its context. Second, drawing on the thematic analysis, this study aims to provide some guidance for researchers. The findings show that BYOD is not just another buzzword. Albeit some similarities with other research topics such as mobile work, telework and virtual teams, BYOD has its own particularities and their consequences on various organisational aspects motivate further examination of the BYOD trend. Hence, this study also proposes a research agenda to guide future efforts

Anne-Marie Croteau*, GReSI Member, and Reem Ayouby*, Ph.D. Candidate, *John-Molson School of Business, Concordia University

How do the implicit motives influence problematic school media use?  This behavioural research is inspired by an intra-individual perspective which considers three levels of analysis—explicit, implicit, and neuro / physiological. The conceptual contribution of this research is anchored in implicit motives on the implicit level of analysis. In this presentation we explore how elements on the explicit and implicit levels interact to shape problematic social media use. The latter is defined as usage that is impulsive, rationally unwanted, and unjustified given the context. Three implicit motives—affiliation, power, and achievement—are expected to produce different effects on problematic social media use. The implicit affiliation motive is defined as having a concern for forming, keeping and recovering pleasant relationships with others. The implicit power motive is defined as a concern for having impact on others. The implicit achievement motive is reflected in a concern for mastery and excellence. Implicit affiliation is expected to drive affective behaviour which seeks to establish social connection, increasing the possibility of problematic social media use. Implicit power is similarly expected to drive problematic social media use. However, implicit achievement is expected to channel energy away from problematic social media use. The appeal of social media to the implicit motives will be explored. The conceptualization of problematic social media use will be discussed. The three implicit motives and their measurement through the picture story exercise and the Winter scoring method (1994) will also be discussed.